The allergic sneezing is a nasal mucosa inflammation caused by the generation of antibodies triggered by the allergic reaction to the relative allergens. The first contact with the allergen can pass with no symptoms, but then comes sensitization. The next contact with the same allergen brings on an allergic reaction that manifests immediately. An important factor in the occurrence of the disease is first of all hereditary predisposition. Most patients have a topic constitution – predisposition in other words, one parent or both parents are ill with allergic sneezing or asthma. The disease is more frequent in boys born in spring or summer.

Seasonal sneezing – hay fever (Rhinitis Allergica Pollynosa). – occurs in the specific season when trees, grass and weeds are in the blooming phase. The allergen is pollen in the air in each and every place, causing constant sneezing. A topic perennial sneezing Rhinitis Allergica Aperiodica occurs all year round, more often in winter and it is caused by house allergens: home dust, mites, animal hair, dried excretions, feathers, mould.

With occupational sneezing, sensitization occurs in the workplace. It is mostly the patient who points at the allergen and the symptoms’ recurrence is non-seasonal. The symptoms cease with workplace change or with annual holiday.

Inhalation allergens are tree pollens from February to May, grass pollens from April to October, weed pollens from June to October, house dust, bedding dust, mites, feathers, animal hairs, dried excretions, mould.

The clinical picture. Salvos sneezing, nose itching, mucous secretion, nasal congestion.
The accompanying symptoms are: itching, redness, lacrimation, eye-burning, pain and compression sensation in the paranasal sinuses, smell sense loss, headache, ear pain and congestion, itching, voice harshness, dry cough, throat itching sensation, sleep disruption, lesser concentration ability at work or at school.

During the allergic reaction, irritated nasal mucosa favours bacteria and viruses development, so that not rarely complications such as infections due to these microorganisms follow.

A great number of patients have allergic rhinitis and asthma. A proper and efficient rhinitis therapy can significantly diminish asthma risk.

The right diagnosis is set based on personal and family case history, clinical picture, laboratory analyses findings, elevated eosinophil count in the blood and pernasal swab culture, total IgE and specific IgE), Prick’s skin test and specific nasal provocation tests and paranasal sinuses X-ray if need be.

The therapy is to start at least two weeks before the blooming to prevent the allergic sneezing onset.

The therapy, first of all, implies the use of antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, nasal decongestants and inhalation therapies. The specific immunotherapy (desensitisation) is achieved with small allergen doses sublingually and cutaneously by gradually increasing the allergen dose in specific intervals and gives best results.

With pollen allergy, the maximum concentration of the allergen is in the morning hours, so, you’d better avoid spending time outdoors, if possible. Moreover, the room you sleep in must 3 be closed at that time. When you come back home, make sure to change your clothes, shake them inside out, have a shower and wash your hair. With indoor allergens it is necessary to air, vacuum-clean and dust regularly.

Prim. E. Leštanin, MD, ORL specialist, audiologist

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